Study on permafrost thermal stability and disturbance of the Mohe-Daqing oil pipe and its accompanying road of China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline

  • LIN DING 1. Northeast Forestry University 2.Heilongjiang University
  • YANG YANG 1. Northeast Forestry University 2. Heilongjiang Institute of Technology
  • PING HAI LIU Heilongjiang Institute of Technology
Keywords: China–Russia crude oil pipeline, permafrost, thermal stability, thermal disturbance, accompanying road

Abstract

The Mohe–Daqing oil pipeline (MDOP) of China–Russia crude oil pipeline (CRCOP) goes through a 441 km permafrost in high-latitude regions, the most critical problem of which is the thawing settlement of the oil pipe. Global warming effect, oil temperature, and construction technology causes the increase of ground temperature and accelerates the degradation of permafrost. The influence of geohazards on the existing CRCOP and its accompanying road was investigated in this study, which showed that the current engineering had been affected by freezing-thawing influence. It would be more serious for the thermal disturbance between each other. In view of this problem, the thermal stability of the oil pipe and accompanying road was simulated based on the MDOP, considering various scenarios of different oil temperatures, whether global warming is considered or not, whatever the thermal insulation layer is and regardless of the different distances from the accompanying road. The numerical results indicate that the oil temperature had considerable influence on the thawing rate of permafrost. Placing the thermal insulation material around the oil pipe can effectively mitigate or even control the degradation of permafrost. With this measurement, the thaw depth has remained stable after 5 years of construction, and had been controlled within 3.0 m when the thermal insulation thickness reached 8.0 cm. The accompanying road can also have an adverse effect on the permafrost for its thermal interaction with the oil pipe. The larger the distance, the lesser the thermal disturbance. Therefore, the thermal stability of MDOP can positively adopt a suitable oil temperature for thermal insulation thickness, along with an optimized distance away from the accompanying road as well. This study would also provide an essential theoretical and technological support for the design of oil pipeline in other permafrost regions.

References

Tsytovich, N. A. The Mechanics of Frozen Ground. Science Press, Beijing (Translated by Zhang Changqing, Zhu Yuanling), 1985.

French, H. M. The periglacial environment (2nd edition). Essex, London, 1996: 341.

Li, G. Y., Ma, W., Wang, X. L., et al. Frost hazards and mitigative measures following operation of Mohe-Daqing line of China-Russia crude oil pipeline. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2015, 36 (10): 2963-2973.

Jin, H. J., Zhang, J. M., Yu, Q. H., et al. Identification and mitigation of frost hazards along the China-Russia oil pipeline. Proc., 9th Int. Conf. on Permafrost. Alaska, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, 2008: 845-850.

Li, G. Y., Sheng, Y., Zhang, J. M., et al. Recent advances in frozen ground engineering geology survey along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route (Mohe-Daqing Section). J. Glaciol. Geocryol, 2008, 30 (1) : 170-175.

Yu, W. B., Han, F. L., Liu, W. b., Stuart A. Harris, Geohazards and Thermal Regime Analysis of Oil Pipeline along the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Engineering Corridor, Natural Hazards, 2016,83:193-209.

Jin, H. J., Hao, J. Q., Chang, X. L., et al. Zonation and assessment of frozen-ground conditions for engineering geology along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline route from Mo’he to Daqing, Northeastern China. Cold regions Science and Technology, 2010: 64, 213-225.

Li, G. Y., Sheng, Y., Jin, H. J., et al. Forecasting the oil temperatures along the proposed China-Russia Crude oil Pipeline using quasi 3-D transient heat conduction model. Cold regions Science and Technology, 2010 : 64, 235-242.

Wen, Z., Sheng, Y., Jin, H. J., et al. Thermal elasto-plastic computation model for a buried oil pipeline in frozen ground. Cold regions Science and Technology, 2010, 64: 248-255.

Doblanko, R. M., Oswell, J. M., Hanna, A. J. Right-of-way and pipeline monitoring in permafrost-the Norman Wells Pipeline experience. Proceedings of the ASME 4th International Pipeline Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2002: 605-614.

Chen, Y. C., Song, Y. T., Ding, D. W. Simulating calculation of temperature field around oil-gathering pipelines buried on frozen ground area. Oilfield Surf. Eng, 1994, 13(2): 4-7.

Cui, X. G., Zhang, J. J. Determination of the thermal influence zone of buried hot oil pipeline on steady operation. J. Univ. Petrol. China (Edition of Natural science), 2004, 28(2): 75-78.

Hastaoglu, M. A., Hakin, A. A. Freezing time predictions of buried pipes: A 3-D transient simulation. Chem. Eng. Technol, 1996: 19, 243-248.

Yu, F., Qi, J. L. , Yao, X. L. Monitoring Settlement at Different depths within an Embankment in Permafrost Region. Journal of glaciology and geocryology, 2011, 33(4): 813-818

Lachenbruch. A. H. Some estimates of the thermal effects of a heated pipeline in permafrost. U. S. Geol. Surv. Circular 632, Washington D. C, 1970: 1-23.

Johnson, E. R., Hegdal, L. A. Permafrost-related performance of the Trans Alaska oil pipeline. Proc., 9th Int. Conf. on Permafrost. Alaska, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, 2008: 857-864.

Nixon, J. F., Kaye, L. M. Application of pipe temperature simulator for Norman Wells oil pipeline. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 1996, 33: 140-149.

Jin, H. J., Brewer, M. C. Experiences and lessons learned in the engineering design and construction in the Alaska arctic. J. Glaciol. Geocryol, 2005, 27(1): 140-145.

Yu, W. B., Liu, W. B., Lai, Y. M., et al. Nonlinear Analysis of Coupled Temperature-Seepage Problem of Warm Oil Pipe in Permafrost Regions of Northeast China. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2014,70(1) : 988-995.

PetroChina Petrobeum Planning Institute. Feasibility study report for the proposed China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Engineering Project (Skovorodina, Russia to Daqing, China rout), Version II, G2005-61. PetroChina Oil Planning Istitute, Beijing, China (in Chinese), 2005.

King, L., Herza, T., Hartmanna, H., et al. The PACE monitoring strategy: A concept for permafrost research in Qinghai-Tibet. Quaternary International, 2006: 154/155, 149-157.

Frauenfeld, O. W., Zhang, T. J., James, L., et al. Northern Hemisphere freezing/thawing index variations over the twentieth century. International Journal of Climatology, 2007: 27, 47-63.

Lai, Y. M., Zhang, M. Y., Li, S. Y. Theory and application of cold regions engineering. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese) , 2009.

Zhang, M. Y., Li, S.Y., GAO, Z. H., Zhang, S. J. Nonlinear Analysis of the Temperature Field of the Embankment with Crushed-Rock Revetment and Insulation along the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway. Journal of glaciology and geocryology, 2007, 29(2): 306-312

Li, S. Y., Zhang, S. J., Zhao, D. A., Yang, Y. G. Dynamical analysis model for frozen embankment and seismic hazard assessment of Qinghai-Tibet Railway. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2010,31(7):2179-2201

Liu, Z. Q., Ma, W., Zhou, G. Q., et al. Simulated experiment study on the temperature field of frozen subgrade modulated by horizontal pipes. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 2005, 24(11):1827-1831

Ma, T.,Tang, T.,Huang, X. M., Wang, H. Numerical analysis on thermal regime of wide embankment in permafrost regions of Qinghai−Tibet Plateau. Journal of Central South University, 2016, 23(12) : 3346–3355.

Liu, H., Niu, F. J., Niu, Y. H., Xu, J., Wang, T. H. Effect of structures and sunny–shady slopes on thermal characteristics of subgrade along the Harbin–Dalian Passenger Dedicated Line in Northeast China. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2016, 123: 14–21.

Zhang, M. Y., Lai, Y. M., Zhang, J. M., et al. Numerical study on cooling characteristics of two-phase closed thermosyphon embankment in permafrost regions. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2011, 65: 203-210.

Li, S. Y., Zhan, H. B., Lai, Y. M., et al. The coupled moisture-heat process of permafrost around a thermokarst pond in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau under global warming. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Sruface, 2014.

Song, Y., Jin, L., Zhang, J. Z. In-situ study on cooling characteristics of two-phase closed thermosyphon embankment of Qinghai-Tibet Highway in permafrost regions. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2013, 93: 12-19.

Wu, D., Jin, L., Peng, J. B., et al. The thermal budget evaluation of the two-phase closed thermosyphon embankment of the Qinghai-Tibet Highway in permafrost regions. Cold regions Science and Technology, 2014, 103: 115-122.

Zhang, X. F., Yu, W. B., Liu Z. Q. Three-dimensional nonlinear analysis for coupled problem of seepage field and temperature field of cold regions tunnels. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 2006, 28(9):1095-1100

Zhou, Y. F., Zhang X. F., Zhou, Y. J. A New Method on the Parameters Design of Heat Preservation and Insulation Layer in Frozen Tunnels. Science Technology and Engineering, 2017, 17(14):314-319

Jin, L., Wang, S. J., Chen, J. B., et al. Study on the height effect of highway embankments in permafrost regions. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 2012: 83-84, 122-130.

Peng, H., Chen, J. B., Wang, Z., et al. Heat affected area of road engineering in permafrost regions of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. China Journal of Highway and Transport, 2015, 28(12): 92-99.

Zhang, M. Y., Pei, W. S., Zhang, X. Y., et al. Lateral thermal disturbance of embankments in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Engineering Corridor. Nat Hazards, 2015, 78: 2121-2142.

Published
2020-03-05
Section
Civil Engineering (1)