A study of assistance of lighting indicators to assist way-finding for firefighting and rescue services
Most existing researches discuss way-finding from the view of refugees, and seldom is the issue explored through the viewpoint of fire fighting and rescue. If the time firefighters spend for way-finding can be decreased during a fire, it would reduce losses of life and properties effectively. Thus, in order to analyze possibilities for enhancing way-finding efficacy in an actual fire, this study employed a full scale real space for fire rescue experiments to discuss relevant issues such as fire fighting and rescue crews’ way-finding, behavioral characteristics and addition of supplementary signs. The results are as follow: 1. Existing rescue models indicate that gender, search sequence and search and rescue training affect way-finding the most. 2. Addition of fire location signs can reduce way-finding time greatly and there is no significant difference between firefighters with varying backgrounds. 3. Way-finding sequence is the main reason for the length of time, thus existing training programs should strengthen graphic reading training to increase the ability to establish search and rescue plans.
Piamonte, D.P.T., Understanding small graphical symbols: a cross-cultural study. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 27, pp.399-404, 2001.
Murray, L.A., Magurno, A.B., Glover, B.L., Wogalter, M.S. Prohibitive pictorials: Evaluations of different circle-slash negation symbols. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 22, pp.473-482, 1998.
Wogalter, M.S., Conzola V.C., Smith-Jackson. Research-based guidelines for warning design and evaluation. Applied Ergonomics, 33, pp.219-230, 2002.
Shieh, K.K., Huang, S.M., Factors affecting preference ratings of prohibitive symbols, Applied Ergonomics, 34, pp.581-587, 2003.
Petiot, J.F., Yannou, B., Measuring consumer perceptions for a better comprehension, specification and assessment of product semantics. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33, pp.507-525, 2003.
Maguire, M. C., Areview of human factors guidelines and techniques for the design of graphical human–computer interfaces. Computers and Graphics, 9 (3), pp.221-235, 1985.
Ouellette MJ., Exit signs in smoke: design parameters for greater visibility. Lighting Research and Technology, 20(4), pp.155-160, 1988.
Collins, A. M., & Quillian, M. R. Retrieval time from semantic memory, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, pp.240-247, 1969.
Garling, T., Book, A., & Lindberg, E. Cognitive Mapping of Large-scale Environments. Environment and Behavior, 16, pp.3-34,1984.
Passini, R., Wayfinding: backbone of graphic support systems. Visual Information for Everyday Use, London: Taylor & Francis, 1999.
Montello, D. R., Spatial Orientation And The Angularity Of Urban Routes A Field Study. Environment and Behavior, 23(1), pp.47-69, 1991.
Evans, G. W. Environmental cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 88, pp.259-287, 1980.
Best, G. A. Direction-finding in large buildings. In D. Canter, Ed., Architectural Psychology. London: RIBA Publications, pp.72-91, 1970.
Nichols, F., Canete, I. & Tuladhar, S. Designing for Pedestrians: A CAD Network Analysis Approach. In Y. E. Kalay, Ed., Evaluating and Predicting Design Performance. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons, 1992.
O'Neill, M. J. Evaluation of a conceptual model of architectural legibility. Environment and Behavior, 23(3), pp.259-284, 1991a.
O'Neill, M. J. Effects of signage and floor plan configuration on way-finding accuracy. Environment and Behavior, 23(5), pp.553-574, 1991b.
Chieh-Hsin Tang, En-Shu Kuo, Chien-Jung Chen, Ying-Ji Chuang, Ching-Yuan Lin, A Basic Study on the Application of Emergency Icons to Emergency Exits during a Fire , Journal of Applied Fire Science, Vol. 17(3), pp. 261-275, 2007-2008, 2010 publishing.
Chieh-Hsin Tang, Yih-Cheng Lin, Sung-Yu Yuang, Chin-Hsing Huang, Ying-Ji Chuang, Ching-Yuan Lin, A Case Study on Emergency Evacuation and a Simulation of Department Stores and Shopping Malls during a Fire, Journal of Applied Fire Science, Vol. 18(2), pp. 117-134, 2008-2009, 2011 publishing.