The cause-and-effect analysis of ground level ozone (O3), air pollutants and meteorological parameters using the causal relationship approach

  • AHMAD FAUZI RAFFEE Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia
  • HAZRUL ABDUL HAMID School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • SITI NAZAHIYAH RAHMAT Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia
  • MUHAMMAD ISMAIL JAFFAR Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia


The recent reduction in ambient air quality has been related to anthropogenic activity. This anthropogenic activity played a big role in polluting the atmosphere. Ozone (O3) is one of the air pollutants that is not emitted directly from the source at ground level. Anthropogenic activities like industrial and mobile sources, on the other hand, may produce O3 pollutant precursors directly. Human health, the environment, materials, and crops have all been found to be negatively affected by this O3 pollutant. As a result, this study investigated the causal relationship between O3 and particulate matter, gaseous pollutants, and meteorological circumstances. Three monitoring stations, each representing a different geographic region, were chosen. The three sampling monitoring stations are in Negeri Sembilan, Kelantan, and Perlis, and represent industrial, urban, and sub-urban areas, respectively. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and wind speed (WS) are all causally related to O3 in Nilai, as are SO2 and carbon monoxide (CO) in Kota Bharu, and NO2 and CO in Kangar. In the meantime, it was discovered that the causal relationship between the causative parameter and O3 is only one-way. The O3 considers this to be a secondary contaminant that may require this parameter in order to form in ambient air. However, none of the primary parameters have a directional relationship to the others, except for O3. As a result, this discovery may be useful in future research to increase our understanding of air quality, particularly the O3 pollutant.