Predicting the flow zone indicator of carbonate reservoirs using NMR echo transforms, and routine open-hole log measurements
Insights from a field case study spanning extreme micro-structure properties
Predicting the flow zone indicator is essential for identifying the hydraulic flow units of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Delineation of hydraulic flow units is crucial for mapping petrophysical and rock mechanical properties. Precise prediction of the flow zone indicator (FZI) of carbonate rocks using well log measurements in un-cored intervals is still a daunting challenge for petrophysicists. This study presents a data mining methodology for predicting the rock FZI using NMR echo transforms, and conventional open-hole log measurements. The methodology is applied on a carbonate reservoir with extreme microstructure properties, from an important oil “M” field in the region. The M field reservoir is characterized by a relatively high-permeability with a median of approximately 167 mD, and a maximum of 3480 mD. The reservoir from the M field features detritic, or vuggy structure, covering a wide range of rock fabrics varying from microcrystalline mudstones to coarse-grained grainstones. Porosity has a median of approximately 22%.
Dimensional analysis and regression analysis are applied for the derivation of four transforms that appear to capture approximately 80% of the FZI variance. These four transforms are formulated using the geometric mean of the transverse NMR relaxation time (T2lm), the ratio of the free fluid index (FFI) to the bulk volume irreducible (BVI), the bulk density, the sonic compressional travel time, the true resistivity, the photo-electric absorption, and the effective porosity.
Non-linear regression models have been developed for predicting the FZI using the derived transforms, for the carbonate reservoir from the M field. The average relative error for the estimated FZI values is approximately 52%. The same transforms are used as input for training a developed general regression neural network (GRNN), built for the purpose of predicting rock FZI. The constructed GRNN predicts FZI with a notable precision. The average absolute relative error on FZI for the training set is approximately 3.1%. The average absolute relative error on FZI for the blind testing set is approximately 22.0 %.
The data mining approach presented in this study appears to suggest that (i) the relationship between the flow zone indicator and open-hole log attributes is highly non-linear, (ii) the FZI is highly affected by parameters that reflect rock texture, rock micro-structure geometry, and diagenetic alterations, and (iii) the derived transforms provide a means for further enhancement of the flow zone indicator prediction in carbonate reservoirs.