Modeling interaction between distribution company and networked microgrids in optimal operation of active distribution network
In this paper, the interaction between energy sellers and buyers in utilizing active distribution networks is modeled with considering two networked and nonnetworked modes of microgrids (MGs). A retail electricity market is modeled as a bilevel problem. Accordingly, the Distribution Company (DISCO) in the upper level in order to maximize the profit offers an optimal price to MGs, while in the lower level, the MGs are used to compare the offered prices by DISCO with the prices of MGs generation sources for minimizing the total costs decided to whether to buy from the DISCO or not. The first contribution of the paper is to consider the networked operation of the MGs under a unique beneficiary of MGs (BMG). As the second contribution, two extremely important indices, that is, reserve and self-adequacy, are considered, which are necessary in the problems related to MGs. In this paper, the impact of considering and disregarding these two important indices of MGs, that is, reserve and self-adequacy, on the profit of the DISCO in two different scenarios is investigated. In each scenario, the impact of considering two modes of MGs, that is, networked and nonnetworked, on the profit of DISCO is investigated. Simulation results show the efficiency of the presented model.