Value added usage of granular steel slag and milled glass in concrete production

  • Sajjad Ali CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar
  • Shahid Iqbal Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar
  • Shah Room University of Technology, Nowshera
  • Ahsan Ali Qaid e Awam University College of Engineering, Science and Technology, Larkana
  • Zia Ur Rehman CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar
Keywords: fresh concrete properties, glass powder, mechanical concrete properties, steel slag, green concrete


Industrial development has generated enormous conveniences for humans at the cost of environmental pollution. Cement production is a major cause of carbon dioxide emission in the construction industry and utilization of a large number of aggregates in concrete is causing scarcity of natural resources and irreversible depletion. The practice of utilizing industrial wastes in the production of concrete can be a useful solution. In this research, the green concrete of enhanced properties is produced by incorporation of milled glass as partial replacement of cement and fine aggregates are replaced by granular steel slag with different dosages. Ten types of concrete mixes substituting cement by glass powder (10%, 20% and 30%) and sand by granular steel slag (40%, 60% and 80%) were assessed in terms of rheological, mechanical and microstructural properties. Results indicated that concrete having 80% granular steel slag and 20% glass powder shows maximum increase of 42%,  16%, 16% and 14% in splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength respectively. Scanning electron microscopy depicts the formation of secondary calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and improved packing density in concrete mixes having granular steel slag and glass powder. Thus, granular steel slag and glass powder can effectively be used as cement and sand replacement in the production of value-added green economical concrete and reducing environmental pollution.

Author Biographies

Sajjad Ali, CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar

MS Scholar

Department of Civil Engineering

Shahid Iqbal, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar

Associate Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

Shah Room, University of Technology, Nowshera


Department of Civil Engineering Technology

Ahsan Ali, Qaid e Awam University College of Engineering, Science and Technology, Larkana

Assistant Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

Zia Ur Rehman, CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar

MS Scholar

Department of Civil Engineering


Abukersh, S. A., and C. A. Fairfield. 2011. “Recycled aggregate concrete produced with red granite dust as a partial cement replacement.” Construction and Building Materials 25: 4088-4094. doi:

Afshinnia, K., and P. R. Rangaraju. 2016. “Impact of combined use of glass powder and crushed aggregate on selected properties of Portland cement concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 117: 263-272. doi:

Ali, E. E., and S. H. Al-Tersawy. 2012. “Recycled glass as partial replacement for fine aggregate in self-compacting concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 35: 785-791.

Ali, Sajjad, Zia Ur Rahman, and Muhammad Kamran Khan. 2017. “Influence of glass powder and steel slag on properties of concrete: A reveiw.” Civil Engineering Journal-Stavebni Obzor (4): 386-393.

Aliabdo, A. A., A. M. Abd Elmoaty, and Y. Aboshama. 2016. “Utilization of waste glass powder in the production of cement and concrete.” Construction and Buidling Materials 124: 866-877. doi:

ASTM C 138. 2003. “Standard Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete.”

ASTM C 143/C 143 M. 2003. “Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement Concrete.”

ASTM C 192/C 192M-02. 2003. “Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Laboratory.”

ASTM C 39. 2016. “Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. ASTM International.”

ASTM C 469-94. 2003. “Standard Test Method for Static Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete in Compression.”

ASTM C 496-04. 2004. “Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.”

ASTM C 78-02. 2002. “Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading).”

Biskri, Yasmina, Djamel Achoura, Nourredine Chelghoum, and Michel Mouret. 2017. “Mechanical and durability characteristics of High Performance Concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 150: 167-178.

Castro, S. D., and J. D. Brito. 2013. “Evaluation of the durability of concrete made with crushed glass aggregates.” Journal of Cleaner Production 41: 7-4.

Crossin, Enda. 2015. “The greenhouse gas implications of using ground granulated blast furnace slag as a cement substitute.” Journal of Cleaner Production 95: 101-108. doi:

Deschamps, Joris, Bálint Simon, and Arezki Tagnit-Hamou. 2018. “Is open-loop recycling the lowest preference in a circular economy? Answering through LCA of glass powder in concrete.” Journal of Cleaner Production 185: 14-22.


González-Ortega, M. A., I. Seguraa, S.H.P. Cavalaroa, B. Toralles-Carbonarib, A. Aguadoa, and A.C. Andrelloc. 2014. “Radiological protection and mechanical properties of concretes with EAF steel slags.” Construction and Building Materials 51: 432-438. doi:

Heriyanto, Farshid Pahlevani, and Veena Sahajwalla. 2018. “From waste glass to building materials – an innovative sustainable solution for waste glass.” Journal of Cleaner Production 191: 192-206. doi:

Hou, X., D. Xu, B. Xue, and H. Li. 2012. “Study on volume stability problems of cement caused by steel slag.” Journal of Building Materials 5: 589-595. doi:10.3969 / j.issn.1007-9629.2012.05.002.

Huang, X., Z. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Hu, and W. Ni. 2016. “On the use of blast furnace slag and steel slag in the preparation of green artificial reef concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 112: 241-246. doi:

Imbabi, M.S., C. Carrigan, and S. Mckenna. 2012. “Trends and

development in green cement and concrete technology.” International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 01: 194-216. doi:

Iqbal, Shahid, Ahsan Ali, Klaus Holschemacher, Thomos A. Bier, and Yuri Ribakov. 2017. “Effect of fly ash on properties of self-compacting high strength lightweight cooncrete.” Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering 61: 81-87.

Khan, M.S.H., A. Castel, S.J. Foster, and M. Smith. 2016. “Utilisation of steel furnace slag coarse aggregate in low calcium fly ash geopolymer concrete.” Cement and Concrete Research 89: 220-229. doi:

Lu, Jian-xin, Zhen-hua Duan, and Chi Sun Poon. 2017. “Fresh properties of cement pastes or mortars incorporating waste glass.” Construction and Building Materials 131: 793-799.

Mengxiao, S., W. Qiang, and Z. Zhikai. 2015. “Comparison of the properties between high-volume fly ash concrete and high-volume steel slag concrete under temperature matching curing condition.” Construction and Building Materials 98: 649-655. doi:

Motz, H., and J. Geiseler. 2001. “Products of steel slags, an opportunity to save natural resources.” Waste Management 21: 285-293. doi:

Netinger, I., D. Varevac, D. Bjegovic, and D. Moric. 2013. “Effect of high temperature on properties of steel slag aggregate concrete.” Fire Safety Journal 59: 1-7. doi:

Parghi, A., and M. S. Alam. 2016. “Physical and chemical properties of cementitious composites contaning recycled glass powder (RGP) and styrene butadience rubber (SBR).” Construction and Building Materials 106: 34-43. doi:

Qasrawi, H., F. Shalabi, and I. Asi. 2009. “Use of low CaO unprocessed steel slag in concrete as fine aggregate.” Construction and Building Materials 23: 1118-1125. doi:

Raju, S., and P. R. Kumar. 2014. “Effect of Using Glass Powder in Concrete.” International Conference On Innovations & Advances In Science, Engineering And. Kerala, India. 421-427.

Rashad, A.M. 2014. “Recycled waste glass as fine aggregate replacement in cementitious materials based on Portland cement.” Construction and Building Materials 72: 340-357. doi:

Rehman, Shahir, Shahid Iqbal, and Ahsan Ali. 2018. “Combined influence of glass powder and granular steel slag on fresh and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 178: 153-160.

Rodier, Loïc, and Holmer Savastano. 2018. “Use of glass powder residue for the elaboration of eco-efficient cementitious materials.” Journal of Cleaner Production 184: 333-341. doi:

Roslan, N. H., M. Ismail, Z. Abdul-Majid, and B. Muhammad. 2016. “Performance of steel slag and steel sludge in concrete.” Construction and Building Materials 104: 16-24. doi:

San-Jose, J. T, I. Vegas, I. Arribas, and I. Marcos. 2014. “The performance of steel-making slag concrete in the hardened state.” Materials and Design 60: 612-619. doi:

Schwarz, N., M. DuBois, and N. Neithalath. 2007. “Electrical conductivity based characterization of plain and coarse powder modified cement paste.” Cement and Concrete Research 29: 656-666. doi:

Silva, R. V., J. De Brito, and R. K. Dhir. 2014. “Properties and composition of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste for concrete production.” Construction and Building Materials 65: 201-217. doi:

Srivastava, Vikas, Rakesh Kumar, V C Agarwal, and P K Mehta. 2015. “Effect of Silica Fume on Workability and Compressive Strength of OPC Concrete.” Journal of Environmental Nanotechnology 3: 32-35.

Tho-In, Tawatchai, Vanchai Sata, Kornkanok Boonserm, and Prinya Chindaprasirt. 2018. “Compressive strength and microstructure analysis of geopolymer paste using waste glass powder and fly ash.” Journal of Cleaner Production 172: 2892-2898. doi:

Yu, X., Z. Tao, T. Y. Song, and Z. Pan. 2016. “Performance of concrete made with steel slag and waste glass.” Construction and Building Materials 114: 737-746. doi:

Zelic, J. 2005. “Properties of concrete pavement prepared with ferrochromium slag as concrete aggregate.” Cement and Concrete Research 35: 2340-2349. doi:

Civil Engineering (1)