Springback behavior of dp600 steel: an implicit finite element simulation

Keywords: Springback, Implicit Analysis, Dual Phase Steel, Bottoming, Bending


The paper deals with simulating the springback behavior of DP 600 sheet metal, widely used in automotive industry, after the bending process. ANSYSY commercial software was used to analyze the forming operation. Tensile tests had been conducted to obtain stress-strain curve, strain hardening exponent and anisotropy coefficients. The experimental data were used as input for the modeling. The finite element analysis is carried out to determine the degree of springback of four different bending angles, five different punch radiuses and six different sheet metal thickness. Springback is found to be dependent on the punch radius to sheet metal thickness ratio. An equation is proposed to calculate the degree of springback for DP600 dual phase steel sheet, taking into account die angle, punch radius and sheet metal thickness. To investigate the springback elimination, bottoming was simulated after bending for different forming angles. The stroke of the punch was increased by 3%, 6% and 9% of sheet metal thickness for bottoming analysis after bending. The analysis showed that the springback has been reduced by bottoming.

Author Biography

Rasid Ahmed Yildiz, Istanbul Technical University
Department of Mechanical Engineering


Boger, R. K., R. H. Wagoner, F. Barlat, M. G. Lee, and K. Chung. 2005. Continuous, Large Strain, Tension/Compression Testing of Sheet Material. International Journal of Plasticity 21(12):2319–43.

Caballero, F. G., M. J. Santofimia, C. García-Mateo, J. Chao, and C. García de Andrés. 2009. Theoretical Design and Advanced Microstructure in Super High Strength Steels. Materials and Design 30(6):2077–83.

Carden, W. D., L. M. Geng, D. K. Matlock, and R. H. Wagoner. 2002. Measurement of Springback. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44(1):79–101.

Chatti, S., M. Hermes, A. Weinrich, N. Ben-Khalifa, and A. E. Tekkaya. 2009. New Incremental Methods for Springback Compensation by Stress Superposition. International Journal of Material Forming 2(SUPPL. 1):817–20.

Chou, I. Nan and Chinghua Hung. 1999. Finite Element Analysis and Optimization on Springback Reduction. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 39(3):517–36.

Erdin, Muhammed Emin and Alper Atmaca. 2016. Effects of Holding Force on the Springback Behavior of Annealed Aluminum Plates. Procedia Engineering 149(June):56–61.

Fouda, N. and M. Samuel. 2015. Experimental and Numerical Prediction of Spring Back in U-Bending Process. (05).

Gan, Wei and R. H. Wagoner. 2004. Die Design Method for Sheet Springback. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 46(7):1097–1113.

Kılıç, Süleyman. 2009. Investigation of Springback Behaviour of DP600 Steel. Nigde University.

Lee, S. W. and D. Y. Yang. 1998. An Assessment of Numerical Parameters Influencing Springback in Explicit Finite Element Analysis of Sheet Metal Forming Process. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 80:60–67.

Leu, Daw-Kwei. 1997. A Simplified Approach for Evaluating Bendability and Springback in Plastic Bending of Anisotropic Sheet Metals. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 66:9–17.

Levy, B. S. 1984. Empirically Derived Equations for Predicting Springback in Bending. Journal of Applied Metalworking 3(2):135–41.

Mrad, Hatem, Mohamed Bouazara, and Gholamreza Aryanpour. 2013. A Reliability Study of Springback on the Sheet Metal Forming Process under Probabilistic Variation of Prestrain and Blank Holder Force. Acta Mechanica Sinica/Lixue Xuebao 29(4):557–66.

Mukherjee, Krishnendu, S. S. Hazra, and M. Militzer. 2009. Grain Refinement in Dual-Phase Steels. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 40(9):2145–59.

Papeleux, Luc and Jean-Philippe Ponthot. 2002.“Finite Element Simulation of Springback in Sheet Metal Forming. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 125–126:785–91.

Pourboghrat, F. and E. Chu. 1995. Prediction of Spring-Back and Side-Wall Curl in 2-D Draw Bending. Journal of Materials Processing Tech. 50(1–4):361–74.

Sen, Hakan. 2015. Investıgatıon of Sprıngback Behavıour of Sheet Steels Wıth Finite Element Simulations in Bending Type of Forming Conditions. Istanbul Technical University.

Shan, T. K., S. H. Li, W. G. Zhang, and Z. G. Xu. 2008. Prediction of Martensitic Transformation and Deformation Behavior in the TRIP Steel Sheet Forming. Materials & Design 29(9):1810–16.

Tekiner, Zafer. 2004. An Experimental Study on the Examination of Springback of Sheet Metals with Several Thicknesses and Properties in Bending Dies. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 145(1):109–17.

Verma, Rahul K. and A. Haldar. 2007. Effect of Normal Anisotropy on Springback. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 190(1–3):300–304.

Wang, Neng-Ming; Tang, Sing C. 1988. Analysis of Bending Effects in Sheet Forming Operations. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 25(1):253–67.

Xue, Xin, Juan Liao, Gabriela Vincze, and Frederic Barlat. 2017. Twist Springback Characteristics of Dual-Phase Steel Sheet after Non-Axisymmetric Deep Drawing. International Journal of Material Forming 10(2):267–78.

Yurci, Mehmet Emin. 1992. Die Manufacturing Technique. Istanbul: Yildiz Technical University.

Mechanical Engineering (2)