New universal two-phase choke correlations developed using non-linear multivariable optimization technique
Production of hydrocarbons from the reservoir must go through surface chokes. The choke is installed to control the surface flow rate of the hydrocarbons and produce it at the optimum flow rate. Thus, the production rate follows the recommendation of the production engineers to prevent problems such as water coning. Accurate prediction of the surface flow rate is crucial as it will lead to fulfil the development plan’s goals of the reservoir and optimize the production. Many correlations were developed to predict the flow rate through surface choke and most of them used one set of data from a single reservoir to develop the correlation. Using these correlations, which are based on limited data, might give results with high error. A new optimization technique is used to develop two universal choke correlations for better prediction of the two-phase flow rate for the oil wells. These correlations predict the liquid flow rate as a function of gas-liquid ratio, choke diameter, wellhead pressure, and oil API gravity. A total of 835 field tests from five different reservoirs were used in developing these correlations, thus, covering a wide range of data set. The new choke correlations proved to predict the flow rate with higher accuracy than the existing correlations by approximately 9%. The results from this study will greatly assist petroleum engineers to have particular estimations of liquid flow rates from wellhead chocks.
Achong, I. 1961 Revised Bean Performance Formula for Lake Maracaibo Wells. Shell Internal Report, Oct.
Ajienka, J. A. Enaibe, O.E. and Owolabi, O.O. 1994 Multiphase Flow – Metering: An Evaluation of Discharge Coefficients. The Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, (33) 8, 8-13.
Al-Attar, H.H, and Abdul-Majeed, G.H. 1988 Revised Bean Performance Equation for East Baghdad Oil Wells. SPEPE, (3) 1, pp. 127-131.
Alrumah, M. K. & Bizanti, M. S. 2007 New Multiphase Choke Correlations for Kuwait Fields. Presented at the SPE Middle East oil and gas show and conference, Manama, Bahrain.
Ashford, F.E. 1974 An Evaluation of Critical Multiphase Flow performance through Wellhead Chokes. Journal of Petroleum Technology, (26) 8, pp. 843-850.
Bairamzadeh, S. & Ghanaatpisheh, E. 2015 A New Choke Correlation To Predict Liquid Flow Rate. Science International Journal (27) 1 , 271-274.
Baxendell, P. B. (1958) “Producing Wells on Casing Flow- An Analysis of Flowing Pressure Gradients”, Trans. AIME. 213, p. 202-207.
Brown, K.E. 1997 The Technology of Artificial Lift Methods, Vol. 1. Petroleum Publishing Company, Tulsa, 235-260.
Esmaeilzadeh, F., Bimkar, F. and Pirakeh, J. 2006 Correlation Determines Gas-condensate Flow through Chokes. Oil and Gas Journal, (104) 6, p. 48-51.
Gilbert, W.E. 1954 Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance. Drill. And Prod. Prac., API 143.
Lannom, D.A. & Hatzigmtiou, D.G. 1996 Multiphase – Flow Choke Correlation Limits Analyzed. Oil and Gas journal, April 8, pp. 37-41
Majeed, A.S.H. 1995 Generalized Formula of Multiphase Fluid Flow through Wellhead Chokes for South Iraqi Oil Field Wells. New technologies applied to Hydrocarbon Production, September 12-15, Delft, The Netherlands, 305-315.
Mesallati, A., Bizanti, M, Mansouri, N. 2000 Multiphase-Flow choke correlations for Offshore Bouri Oil field. International Gas Union 21st World Gas Conference, Nice, France, June 6-9.
Mirzaei-Paiaman & Salavati S. 2013 A New Empirical Correlation for Sonic Simultaneous Flow of Oil and Gas through Wellhead Chokes for Persian Oil Fields. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, (35) 9, 817-825
Nind, T.E.W. 1964 Principles of Oil Well Production. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.
Omana, R., Houssiere, C., Brown, K. E., Brill, J. P., & Thompson, R. E. 1969 Multiphase Flow Through Chokes. Fall meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineering of AIME, Colorado, USA, September 28 – October 1.
Owolabi, O.O., Dune, K.K. and Ajienka, J.A. 1991 Producing the Multiphase Flow Performance through Wellhead Chokes for the Niger Delta Oil Wells. International Conference of the SPE Nigeria Section Annual Proceedings, August 28-30.
Pilehvari, A. A. 1981 Experimental Study of Critical Two-Phase Flow Through Wellhead Chokes. University of Tulsa Fluid Flow Projects Report, June.
Poettman, F.H and Beck, R. L. 1963 New Charts Developed to Predict Gas –Liquid Flow through Chokes. World Oil, March, pp. 95 – 101.
Ros, N. C. J. 1961 An Analysis of Critical Simultaneous Gas/Liquid Flow through a Restriction and Its Application to Flow metering. Applied Science Research, (9) 1, pp. 374.
Sachdeva, R., Schmidt, Z., Brill, J. P., and Blais, R. M. 1986 Two Phase Flow Through Chokes. 61st Annual Technical Conference of SPE, New Orleans, USA, October 5-8.
Sadeq, D. 2012 Prediction of Oil Flow Rate through Choke at Critical Flow for Iraqi Oil Wells. Journal of Petroleum Research and Studies. (212) 1, 53–79.
Safar Beiranvand, M., Mohammadmoradi, P., Aminshahidy, B., Fazelabdolabadi, B., and Aghahoseini, S. 2012 New multiphase choke correlations for a high flow rate Iranian oil field. The Journal of Mechanical Science, (3) 1, 43-47.
Safar Beiranvand, M., & Babaei Khorzoughi, M. 2012 Introducing a New Correlation for Multiphase Flow through Surface Chokes with Newly Incorporated Parameters. SPE Production and Operations. (4) 27, p. 422-428.