A simplified formula for determination of relative pressure in precision forging of spur gears

  • OMER EYERCIOGLU GAZIANTEP UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9076-0972
  • NECIP FAZIL YILMAZ GAZIANTEP UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
Keywords: Precision forging, spur gear, relative pressure, upper bound, forging load

Abstract

In this study, the relative forging pressures of spur gears were evaluated. The precision forging of spur gears were analyzed by using upper bound method considering corner filling and bulging effect. Numerical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effects of various parameters, such as number of teeth, modules, facewidth, bore diameter and friction factor on the relative forging pressure of spur gears. The results were compared with the previous studies and a simplified formula was suggested to predict the relative pressure of precision forging of spur gears. The predicted relative forging pressures obtained by the suggested formula are shown much closer to the experimental results for complete filling of the die cavity.

Author Biographies

OMER EYERCIOGLU, GAZIANTEP UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
MECH ENG
NECIP FAZIL YILMAZ, GAZIANTEP UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
MECH ENG

References

Kelley, M., Danis, L. 1974. Precision Flow Forged Gears, Metals Eng. Quarterly, 20-22. November

Eyercioglu O., Walton, D., Dean, T.A. 1997. Comparative Bending Fatigue Strength of Precision Forged Spur Gears, Proc. Instn. Mech Engrs IMechE, Part C, 211: 293-299. September

Benedict, D.K. 1984. Forged Straight Bevel Gears-An Overview, AGMA pp 84-1949

Townsand, D.P., Bamberger, E.N., Zaretsky, E.V. 1976. A life Study of Ausforged, Standard Forged and Standard Machined AlSI M-50 Spur gears, Transactions. of ASME, Journal of Lubrication Tech., 418-425, July

Lehnhoff, T.F., Chen, H., Ardayfio, D.D. 1983. Surface Durability of Forged and Machined Steel Gears, ASME pp 83-DE-6,

Eyercioglu, O. 1995. Developments and performance analyses of precision forged spur gears, PhD. Thesis, School of Man. And Mech. Eng., The University of Birmingham, England,

Eyercioglu, O., Dean, T.A., Walton, D. 1996. Precision Forging of Gears, Int. Mach. Des. and Prod Conf. Ankara, Turkey, 433-442.

Skrocki, R.R. 1976. Precision Forging of Spiral Bevel Gears, Metals Eng. Quarterly, February 58-64

Sabroff, A.M. 1982. Application of CAD/CAM Techniques to Close Tolerance Forging of Bevel Gears, Annals of the CRIP, 31(1): 141-153

Benedict, D.K. 1989. The CIM of Net Shape Forged Bevel Gears, Journal of Mater. Shaping Technol 7(1): 7-11

Yilmaz, N.F., Eyercioglu, O. 2009. An integrated computer-aided decision support system for die stresses and dimensional accuracy of precision forging dies. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 40(9-10), 875-886

Eyercioglu, O., Kutuk, M.A., Yilmaz, N.F. 2009. Shrink fit design for precision gear forging dies. journal of materials processing technology, 209(4), 2186-2194

Yilmaz, N.F., Eyercioglu, O. 2008. Knowledge based reverse engineering tool for near net shape axisymmetric forging die design. Mechanics, 73(5), 65-73

Yilmaz, N.F., Eyercioglu, O. 2003. Application of UBET in the Prediction of Forging Load for Axisymmetric Forging. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems, 6(1), 1-11

Eyercioglu, O., Dean, T.A., Walton, D. 1994. Dimensional Accuracy of Hot Precision Forged Gears, 1994 Int.Gearing Conf.,Newcastle Upon Tyne, 285-290

Eyercioglu, O., Dean, T.A. 1997. Design and Manufacture of Precision Gear Forging Dies, CRIP Int Conf on Design and Prod of Dies and Molds, Istanbul, Turkey 311-316

Abdelrahman, AR.O., Dean, T.A. 1981. The Quality of Hot Forged Spur Gear Forms. Part II¬ Tooth Form Accuracy, Int. J. Mach. Tool. Des. Res., 21(2):129-141.

Tuncer, M.C. 1985. Precision Forging Hollow Parts, PhD. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Birmingham, England,

Kondo, K., Jitsunari, T., Ohga, K. 1985. Investigations of Cold Die Forging of a Gear Utilising Divided Flow, Bulletin of JSME, 28(244):975-981

Dean, T.A. 2000. The Net-Shape Forming of Gears , J of Materials and Design, 21:271 278

Abdul, N.A., Dean, T.A. 1986. An Analysis of The Forging of Spur Gear Forms, Int J Mach Tool Des Res, 26(2):113-123

Sadeghi, M.H. 1989. Precision Forging Axisymmetric Shapes, Straight and Helical Spur Gears, PhD. Thesis, School of Man. And Mech. Eng., The University of Birmingham, England

Chitkara, N.R., Bhutta, M.A. 1996. Nearnet-Shape Forging- of Spur -Gear-Forms:An Analysis and Some Experiments, Int J Mech Sci, 38(8-9):891-916

Grover, 0.P., Juneja, B.L. 1984. Analysis of Closed-die Forging of Gear Like Element, Adv Tech Plasticity, 888-893

Chitkara, N.R., Bhutta, M.A. 1999. Forging and Heading of Hollow Spur Gear Forms: An Analysis and Some Experiments, Int J Mech Sci,41:1159-1189

Choi, J.C., Choi, Y. 1998. A Study on the Forging of External Spur Gears: Upper Bound Analyses and Experiments, Int J Mach Tool Des Res, 38:1193-1208

Tomov, B.I., Gagov, V.I. 1999. Modelling and Description of the Near-net Shape Forging of Cylindrical Spur Gears, J Mater Proc Tech, 92-93:444-449

Choi, J., Cho, H.Y., Jo, C.Y. 2000. An Upper-Bound Analysis for the Forging of Spur Gears, J. Mater. Proc. Tech. 104, 67-73

Cai, J., Dean, T.A., Hu, Z.M. 2004. Alternative Die Designs in Net-Shape Forging of Gears, J. Mater. Proc. Tech. 150(1), 48-55

Zadshakouyan, M., Sobbouhi, E.A., Jafarzadeh, H. 2009. A Study on the Heading of Spur Gears: Numerical Analysis and Experiments, Int. J. of Mech. Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic Manuf. Eng. V3, n4, 380-384

Rasaee, S., Haghighat, H., Zahedi, M. 2013. Modelling and Upper Bound Analysis of Involute Spur Gear Precision Forging, Int. Res. J. of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4(7), 1676-1682

Yang, C., Zhao, S., Zhang, J. 2014. Precision Forging of Spur Gear by Flow Control Forming Method, Australian j. of Mech. Eng. v12, n1, 101-109

Irani, M., Najafabadi, R.A., Isfahani, T.D. 2014. A Study of Precision Forging of Steel Spur Gears: Upper Bound Model and Experiments, Int. J. of ISSI, v11, n1, 18-23

Zuo, B., Wang, B., Li, Z., Zheng, M., Zhu, X. 2015. Design of Relief-Cavity in Closed-Precision Forging of Gears, j. Cent. South Univ. 22, 1287-1297 DOI: 10.1007/s11771-015-2645-0

Sadeghi, M.H. 2003. Gear Forging: Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Validation, J. of Manuf. Science and Engineering, 125(4), 753-762,

Mathematica, Wolfram Research, Inc.

Published
2021-05-27
Section
Mechanical Engineering (1)