Structural behaviour of large size compressed earth blocks stabilized with jute fiber
Modern earth buildings constructed of Compressed Earth Blocks (CEBs) are low-cost, energy efficient, and sustainable. Environmental regulations suggest for zero emission of greenhouse gases. The strength of CEBs is usually enhanced with the addition of 5 to 10% of cement whose manufacturing may be harmful for the environment. A novel composite of soil (i.e. clay, sand and jute fiber) is used to produce CEBs without addition of cement. The jute fiber was added by weight from 0.5 to 2% to mixture of pulverized clay and sand and water. The CEBs were tested for compressive strength, tensile strength in terms of modulus of rupture, load vs deflection response, shrinkage, drying time and development of cracks. With the addition of jute fiber: (i) the compressive strength, deflection, drying time, shrinkage and cracks were reduced, (ii) the modulus of rupture slightly increased, and (iii) the load at failure was almost same. The addition of 0.5% of jute fiber was enough to minimize drying cracks. The CEBs reinforced with jute fiber dried in about half the time taken by those without fiber. The average compressive strength, tensile strength, and linear shrinkage of the CEBs are within acceptable limits prescribed by available guidelines. This paper shows that the CEBs manufactured using clay, sand and jute fiber could be used for construction of earth buildings instead of those stabilized with cement.
Alam, I., Naseer, A. & Shah, A.A. 2015. Economical stabilization of clay for earth buildings construction in rainy and flood prone areas. Construction and Building Materials 77:154–159.
Ansari, A.A. 2008. Experimental study of the behaviour of pre-perforated post-reinforced baked clay panels of beams, Ph.D. Thesis, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science and Technology, Nawabshah.
AENOR. 2008. Compressed earth blocks for walls and partitions. Definitions, specifications and test methods. UNE 41410. Spanish Association for Standardisation and Certification.
AFNOR. 2001. Compressed earth blocks for walls and partitions: definitions –specifications – test methods – delivery acceptance conditions.
ARSO. 1996. Compressed earth blocks. Technical specifications for ordinary compressed earth blocks. ARS 674. Nairobi (Kenya): African Regional Standard.
ASTM D4318. 2017. Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM D698. 2012. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM E2392 / E2392M. 2016. Standard Guide for Design of Earthen Wall Building Systems, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM C293 / C293M 2010. Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Center-Point Loading).
Auroville. 2018. Earth Institute Raw materials. http://www.earth-auroville.com/raw_material_introduction_en.php
BIS (1725). 1982. Specification for soil based blocks used in general building construction. Bureau of Indian Standards.
Bouhicha, M., Aouissi, F., & Kenai, S. 2005. Performance of composite soil reinforced with barley straw. Cement and Concrete Composites 27(5):617–621.
Calkins, M. 2008. Materials for Sustainable Sites: A Complete Guide to the Evaluation. Selection, and Use of Sustainable Construction Materials. John Wiley and sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
DachverbandLehme, V. 2009. LehmbauRegeln – Begriffe, Baustoffe, Bauteile, Wiesbaden, Germany, Vieweg Teubner.
Damtoft, J.S., Lukasik, J., Herfort, D., Sorrentino, D., & Gartner, E.M. 2008. Sustainable development and climate change initiatives. Cement and Concrete Research 38(2):115–127.
Deboucha, S., & Hashim, R. 2011. A review on bricks and stabilized compressed earth blocks. Scientific Research and Essays 6(3):499–506.
Hejazi, S.M., Sheikhzadeh, M., Abtahi, S.M., & Zadhoush, A. 2012. A simple review of soil reinforcement by using natural and synthetic fibers. Construction and Building Materials 30:100–116.
ICONTEC. 2004. Ground blocks cement for walls and divisions. Definitions, specifications, test methods.
Ismail, S., & Yaacob, Z. 2011. Properties of laterite brick reinforced with oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres. Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology 19(1):33–43.
Jayasinghe, C., & Kamaladasa, N. 2007. Compressive strength characteristics of cement stabilized rammed earth walls. Construction and Building Materials 21(11):1971–1976.
Lakho, N.A., Zardari, M.A., & Pathan, A.A. 2017. Linear shrinkage behaviour of compacted loam masonry blocks. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 36(2): 367-372.
Lakho, N.A., Zardari, M.A. and Memon, M. 2015. Design and fabrication of a mechanized system for casting and compacting laboratory-size clay beams. Scientia Iranica 22(6): 2046-2051.
Li, V.C. 2002. Large volume, high performance applications of fibers in civil engineering. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83:660–686.
Minke, G. 2012. Building with earth: design and technology of a sustainable architecture. Walter de Gruyter.
Morel, J.C., Mesbah, A., Oggero, M., & Walker, P. 2001. Building houses with local materials: Means to drastically reduce the environmental impact of construction. Building and Environment 36(10):1119–1126.
Morel, J.C., Pkla, A., & Walker, P. 2007. Compressive strength testing of compressed earth blocks. Construction and Building Materials 21(2):303–309.
NMAC. 2016. Housing and construction. New Mexico earthen buildings materials code.
Oti, J.E., & Kinuthia, J.M. 2012. Stabilised unfired clay bricks for environmental and sustainable use. Applied Clay Science 58:52-59.
Oti, J. E., Kinuthia, J. M., & Bai, J. 2009. Engineering properties of unfired clay masonry bricks. Engineering Geology 107(3-4):130-139.
Pacheco-Torgal, F. and Jalali, S. 2012. Earth construction: Lessons from the past for future eco-efficient construction. Construction and Building Materials 29:512–519.
Saleem, M.A., Abbas, S., & Haider, M. 2016. Jute Fiber Reinforced Compressed Earth Bricks (FR-CEB)–A Sustainable Solution. Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 19:83–90.
Reddy, B.V., & Jagadish, K.S. 2003. Embodied energy of common and alternative building materials and technologies. Energy and Buildings 35(2):129–137.
Snell, C. & Callahan, T. 2005. Building green: a complete how-to guide to alternative building methods: earth plaster, straw bale, cordwood, cob, living roofs. Lark books.
Staubach, S. 2013. Clay: The History and Evolution of Humankind's Relationship with Earth's Most Primal Element. University Press of New England.
Taallah, B., Guettala, A., Guettala, S., & Kriker, A. 2014. Mechanical properties and hygroscopicity behavior of compressed earth block filled by date palm fibers. Construction and Building Materials 59:161-168.
Yetgin, Ş., Çavdar, Ö., & Cavdar, A. 2008. The effects of the fiber contents on the mechanic properties of the adobes. Construction and Building Materials 22(3): 222-227.