Evaluation of Compacted Laterite Soil Admixed with Cement and Hair Fibres as Road Construction Material
AbstractA natural lateritic soil classified as A-5 (4) based on American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) soil classification system and ML-CL according to Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), was admixed with ordinary Portland cement and synthetic hair fibres (SHF) was evaluated as road construction material. Soil test specimens were made by admixing lateritic soil with up to 4% cement in 1 % step concentration and up to 12% SHF in step concentration of 2 % by dry weight of the soil and were subjected to British Standard Light (BSL) or Standard Proctor method of compaction, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests. Results indicated a decrease in the values of optimum moisture content (OMC) while no general trend was established for maximum dry density (MDD). The values of UCS and CBR increased as the content of both cement and SHF increased. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results shows some level of statistical significance on some geotechnical properties considered. Regression analysis on the results using Minitab R15 software shows that MDD, OMC, cement and SHF significantly influenced the UCS and CBR values of the stabilized soil with correlation coefficient value (R2) of 82.9 and 83.3% respectively. Based on the results, an optimal blend of 3% cement 9% SHF significantly improved the soil properties and is recommended for improving the geotechnical properties of cement/synthetic hair fibre treated lateritic soil as road construction material.
AASHTO 1986. Standard Specification for Transportation, Material and Methods of Sampling and Testing. 14th Edition. Amsterdam Association of State Highway and transportation official Washington D.C.
Abebaw, Z. 2005. Basic Engineering properties of lateritic soils found in Nejo-mendi road construction area, Welega. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Abhijith R.P. 2015. Effect of Natural Coir fibres on CBR Strength of Soil Subgrade, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(4): ISSN 2250-3153.
Akbulut, S., Arasan, S. & Kalkan, E. 2007. Modification of clayey soils using scrap tire rubber and synthetic fibres, Applied Clay Science, 38: 23–32.
ASTM 1992. Annual Book of Standards. Vol. 04.08, American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia.
Bagheri, Y., Ahmad, F. & Ismail, M.A.M. 2014. Strength and mechanical behaviour of soil-cement-lime-rice husk ash (soil-CLR) mixture. Materials and Structures, 47(1-2): 55–66.
Basha, E.A., Hashim, R., Mahmud, H.B. & Muntohar, A.S. 2005. Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement. Construction and Building Materials, 19(6): 448–453.
Blight, G.E. 1997. Mechanics of Residual soils. A.A. Balkema (Ed), Netherlands.
BS 1377 1990. Method of Testing Soils for Civil Engineering Purpose. British Standard Institute, BSI, London.
BS 1924 1990. Method of Test for Stabilized Soils. British Standard Institute BSI, London.
Campbell, S. & Campbell, D. 2008. Introduction to Regression and Data Analysis Statlab Workshop Series. 1-15, http://www.yale.edu/statlab.
Centre for Earthwork Engineering Research, CEER 2013. Cement Stabilization of Subbase and Subgrade. Boone County Expo Test Sections TECHNICAL BRIEF of Institute of Transportation Iowa Department of Transportation, http://www.ceer.iastate.edu.
Deepjyoti, D., Dhrubajyoti, K., Raja, S. & Bikramjit, D. 2016. Shear Strength Enhancement of Sandy Soil Using Hair Fibre. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 5(5): 8278-8283. DOI:10.15680/IJIRSET.2016.0505212 8278.
Estabragh, A.R., Bordbar, A.T. & Javadi, A.A. (2011). Mechanical Behaviour of a Clay Soil Reinforced with Nylon Fibers. Geotechnical Geological Engineering.
Head, K.H. 1992. Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing Vol. 2 Pentech Press, London, Plymouth.
Inod, P., Bhaskar, A. & Lekshmi, C.S. 2007. Triaxial Compression of Clay Reinforced with Sand-Coir Fiber Core. Geotechnical Testing Journal, 30(4): 1-4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/GTJ12639. ISSN 0149-6115.
Kalpana, M. & Solanki C.H. 2009. Behaviour of Fiber Reinforced Soil. Australina Geomatics, 44(4): 65-74.
Kumar, S. & K.Dutta, R. 2014. Unconfined compressive strength of bentonite-lime-phosphogypsum mixture reinforced with sisal fibers. Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 239–250.
Lo, S.R., & Wardani, S.P.R. 2002. Strength and dilatancy of a stabilized by a cement and fly ash mixture. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 39(1), 77-89.
Ochepo, J. 2014. Stabilization of laterite soil using reclaimed asphalt pavement and sugarcane bagasse ash for pavement construction. Journal of Engineering Research, 2(4):1-13.
Ola, S.A. 1974. Need for estimated cement requirement for stabilizing lateritic soil. Journal of Transportation Div., ASCE, 17(8): 379-388.
Oluremi, J.R., Adedokun, S.I. & Osuolale, O.M. 2012. Stabilization of Poor Lateritic Soils with Coconut Husk Ash. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) 1(8): 1-9. www.ijert.org ISSN: 2278-0181.
Oluremi, J.R., Adedokun, S.I. Olaoye, R.A. & Ajamu, S.O. 2012. Assessment of Cassava Wastewater on the Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soil. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 13(1): 631-639 (Online). http://www.akamaiuniversity.us/PJST.htm.
Oluremi, J.R., Siddique, R. & Adeboje, E.P. 2016. Stabilization Potential of Cement Kiln Dust Treated Lateritic Soil. International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, 23: 52-63. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/JERA.23.52.
Oriola, F. & Moses, G. 2010. Groundnut Shell Ash Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 15: 415-428.
Osinubi, K.J, Eberemu, A.O., Yohanna, P. & Etim, R.K. 2016. Reliability Estimate of Compaction Characteristics of Iron Ore Tailings Treated Tropical Black Clay as Road Pavement Sub-Base Material. ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication, 271: 855-864.
Osinubi, K.J, Yohanna, P & Eberemu, A.O. 2015. Cement Modification of Tropical Black Clay Using Iron Ore Tailing as Admixture. Journal of Transportation Geotechnics. 5: 35-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2015.10.001.
PCA. 1995. Soil-Cement Construction Handbook, Portland Cement Association (PCA), Skokie, Illinois.
Ramesh, H.N., Manoj-Krishna, K.V. & Mamatha, H.V. 2010. Compaction and strength behavior of lime-coir fiber treated Black Cotton soil. Journal of Geomechanics and Engineering, 2(1): 19-28. DOI : 10.12989/gae.2010.2.1.019.
Rohin, K. 2014. An Innovative Technique of Improving the C.B.R Value of Soil Using Hair fibre, Global Journal of Engineering Science and Researches. 1(4): 1-6.
Roy, A. 2014. Soil stabilization using rice husk ash and cement. International Journal of Civil Engineering Research, 5(1): 49–54.
Sanjay , C. & Bhawana, P. 2012. Mechanical Behaviour of Polypropylene And Human Hair Fibres And Polypropylene Reinforced Polymeric Composites, International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. 2, (1): 118-121.
Tomas U.G. 2014. Effects of Human Hair Additives in Compressive Strength of Asphalt Cement Mixture. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 67: 11-22 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijast.2014.67.02.
Treasa, M. & Sudheesh, T. 2013. Influence of Randomly Distributed Coir Fibers on Shear Strength of Clay. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 31(2): 425–433.
Uddin, K., Balasubramaniam, A. S., & Bergardo, D. T. 1997. Engineering behaviours of cement-treated Bangkok soft clay. Geotechnical Engineering Journal, (28)1, 89- 119.
Wajid A.B., Karan G., Hamidullah N. & Showkat, M.B. 2014. Soil Sub- grade Improvement Using Human Hair Fiber. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5(12): 977-981.
Wajid A.B., Mir, B.A. & Jha, J.N. 2016. Strength Behavior of Clayey Soil Reinforced with Human Hair as a Natural Fibre. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. 34(1): 411–417.
Yohanna, P., Nwaiwu, C.M.C. & Oluremi, J.R. 2015. Effect of Sample Re-use on the Compaction Characteristics of Concretionary Lateritic Soil as Subgrade Material. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 6(5): 513-523.