Assessment of hot-water and steam flooding in lower fars reservoir
Thermal oil recovery processes are contributors to the world’s oil daily production. The input of thermal energy into hydrocarbon reservoirs reduces oil viscosity and improves mobilization and production of heavy oils. Thermal energy might be introduced to subsurface formations through heat carrying agents such as hot water or steam. These mechanisms are important thermal recovery techniques which are currently implemented in many oil fields to increase oil recovery efficiency.
Evaluating the degree of heat involvement in improving oil recovery from high viscosity oil reservoirs is a crucial issue to optimize the economics of thermal injection projects. Therefore, the performance of thermal recovery processes should be investigated under various reservoir and/or surface conditions prior to field application.
In this work, the effects of several reservoir/operational parameters on the performance of hot water and steam flooding in a high viscosity Middle Eastern reservoir are investigated by numerical means. The objective of this study is to highlight the relationships between heat injection and oil recovery factor under various reservoir/operational conditions. These conditions include the arrangement of injection and production wells, reservoir lateral dimensions, injection rate, temperature and oil viscosity relationship, and reservoir thickness. The results are presented in terms of oil recovery factor versus cumulative heat injected per unit reservoir volume. The results indicate that the investigated parameters have various degrees of influence on hot water and steam flooding performance.
Moritis, G., “CO2 miscible, steam dominate enhanced oil recovery processes”, Oil and Gas Journal, April, 19, 2010. pp. 36-40.
Thum, M., Leith, E. S., Van Wunnik, J. N. M., Mandhari, M. S., and Clark, H. P.: “Thermal Developments in Petroleum Development Oman” Paper SPE 129143 presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil & Gas West Asia, 11-13 April 2010, Muscat, Oman.
Al-Shatti, A.: “Modeling the Performance of Thermal Recovery Techniques on Heavy Oil Deposit in the Middle East”, Master Project, Kuwait University, June 2005.
Milhem, M.M. and Ahmed, K.N.: “Performance of a Pilot Cyclic Steam Stimulation Project in Kuwait,” paper SPE-15733 presented at the Fifth SPE Middle East Oil Show, Manama, Bahrain, 7-10 March, 1987.
Ahmed, K.N., and Milhem, M.M.: “Operation of a Second Steam Stimulation Pilot Project in Kuwait,” paper SPE-17987 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil Show, Manama, Bahrain, 11-14 March, 1989.
Al-Qabandi, S, Al-Shatti, Y and Gopalakrishnan, P.:“Commercial Heavy Oil Recovery by Cyclic Steam Stimulation in Kuwait,” paper SPE 30288 presented at the SPE International Heavy Oil Symposium, 19-21 June 1995, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Sanyal, T.:” Meeting The Challenges Of Planning A Thermal Pilot For Ratqa Lower Fars Heavy Oil Field” Paper SPE 126796 presented at Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, 14-16 December 2009, Kuwait City, Kuwait.
Oskui, R. P., Al Naqi, A., and Dusseault, M. B.:” Screening Potential Production Technologies for the Lower Fars Heavy Oil Asset in Kuwait.” Paper SPE 126268 presented at Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, 14-16 December 2009, Kuwait City, Kuwait.
Viloria, G., and Farouq Ali, S. M.:” Thermal Properties of Rocks and Fluids,” Producers Monthly, July, 1968.