Assessment of reinforced concrete structures under wind and earthquake using different design methods
The effect of wind and earthquake on the structures can be specified briefly by the effect of horizontal forces acted on structures varying in its value and direction depending on the location and the distance from the sea in case of wind load and the seismic activity of the region in case of an earthquake. These horizontal forces conflict in concept with the structural stability of the structure. Most of the designer engineers adopted the vertical forces only in design calculations and neglected the horizontal forces based on the opinion that the horizontal forces are not effective. This design concept is wrong; thus, it is necessary to take into consideration the effect of these horizontal forces on structures. Especially, there are a number of earthquakes that took place in different regions of Iraq. So, it is necessary to deal seriously with design calculations according to local and international common codes. This investigation represents a review for the design procedures of different codes, solved design examples according to different local and international codes, the difference in design between the horizontal and vertical forces, and the methods to minimize the effect of wind and earthquake on structures. Data of 12 floors symmetrical building were adopted in seismic and wind analysis. The results of SAP2000 were compared with international common codes such as European, American, Brazilian, Italian, and Romanian codes. The results of calculations revealed that there are some variations in the analysis of different codes. Romanian code is more conservative in calculating the lateral displacement and forces, while Italian code was low conservative.