Allocation of distributed generation and battery switching stations for electric vehicle using whale optimiser algorithm

U. Sultana, Azhar B. Khairuddin, Nadia Rasheed, Sajid Hussain Qazi, A.S. Mokhtar

Abstract


With the increasing demand for electrical vehicles (EVs) in the existing distribution system due
to road traffic sustainability, fuel costs reduction, and environmental improvement by the promotion
of low carbons in transportation, system planners need to minimise energy losses and improve
voltage profile of the grid. Few studies resolved these issues via optimum placement of distributed
generation (DG) and battery switching station (BSS) units in distribution system; however, these
techniques considered only active power loss minimisation with various methodological limitations.
Therefore, a new application of whale optimiser algorithm (WOA) is proposed to solve these
limitations. The simultaneous placement based approach of the units has been adopted to minimise
active and reactive energy losses of 33- and 69-bus distribution systems. System performance has
been analyzed based on multiple technical criteria, such as system loading factor, voltage profile
improvement, and active and reactive power loss reduction indices. The results of WOA have
been proven to be superior to those of artificial bee colony and gravitational search algorithms.
Therefore, the proposed methodology can guide energy planners in determining optimal allocation
of multiple DG and BSS units in their systems,; in addition to the expected energy loss reduction
within the system, BSS, and DG planning and operational constraints.


Keywords


Battery switching stations; Distributed generation; Electric vehicle; Energy losses; Whale optimiser algorithm

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