### Design of wide area fractional-order PID damping controller for inter-area low-frequency oscillations using differential evolution

#### Abstract

A Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) can extend and effectively improve a controllers’

capability of damping inter-area low-frequency oscillations in interconnected power systems. This

paper presents an implementation of a Wide Area Fractional-Order Proportional-Integral-Derivative

(WA-FOPID) damping controller to improve the system damping. A modal analysis approach is

proposed to identify the best location for the WA-FOPID controller and the optimal combination

of input signals. The differential evolution optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal

controller parameters, and a nonlinear time-domain-based objective function is formulated to

minimize the time-weighted errors. The proposed approach is successfully applied to a two-area

four-machine system, as well as to a practical multi-area power system. The nonlinear timedomain

simulations indicate that the proposed WA-FOPID damping controller can effectively

dampen inter-area oscillations and improve system stability, irrespective of the severity or location

of disturbances.

#### Keywords

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