### Design of ultra-low voltage CCII utilizing level shifting technique and a dual mode multifunction universal filter as an application

#### Abstract

The paper presents an implementation of ultra low voltage second generation current conveyor (ULV-CCII). The methodology adopted for the design is the use of level shifting stage to lower the effective threshold voltage of the PMOS differential pair transistors. The combination of conventional and level shifted P-MOS differential pairs together with low voltage folded cascode output sage was used to achieve almost rail to rail operation at an ultra low supply of ±0.4V. This approach also benefits from increased common mode range. The CCII provides voltage transfer bandwidth of 7.8 MHz and the current transfer bandwidth of 17 MHz while dissipation a nominal power of 123 μW. A versatile dual mode universal filter is realized to validate the functionality of the ULV-CCII. The filter is capable of working in both current and voltage mode without change in its topology. The filter employs only two CCIIs, two capacitors and two resistors. The use of only positive single input CCII simplifies the implementation and relaxes the matching constraints during layout leading to enhanced filter performance. The filter works at ±0.4V supply and provides all standard filter responses in voltage mode as well as low pass and band pass response for current mode of operation. The H-spice simulation results in 0.18μm TSMC CMOS technology are presented to prove the results.

#### Keywords

#### Full Text:

PDF#### References

Achigui, H.F., Fayomi, C.J.B. and Sawan, M. 2006. 1-V DTMOS-based class-AB operational amplifier: implementation and experimental results. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 41(11):2440-2448.

Alzaher, H., Tasadduq, N. and Al-Ees, O. 2013. Implementation of reconfigurable nth-order filter based on CCII. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 75(3):539-545.

Blalock, B.J., Allen, P.E. and Rincon-Mora, G.A. 1998. Designing 1-V op amps using standard digital CMOS technology. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, 45(7):769-780.

Calvo, B., Celma, S., Martinez, P.A. and Sanz, M.T. 2003. High-speed high-precision CMOS current conveyor. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 34(3):265-269.

Carrillo, J.M., Duque-Carrillo, J.F., Torelli, G. and Ausín, J.L. 2003. Constant-g m constant-slew-rate high-bandwidth low-voltage rail-to-rail CMOS input stage for VLSI cell libraries. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 38(8):1364-1372.

Dan, S. and Xiaolin, Z. 2010. Low-voltage CMOS folded-cascode mixer. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 23(2):198-203.

Fabre, A., Saaid, O. and Barthelemy, H. 1995. On the frequency limitations of the circuits based on second generation current conveyors. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 7(2):113-129.

Fabre, A., Saaid, O. and Barthelemy, H. 1995. On the frequency limitations of the circuits based on second generation current conveyors. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 7(2):113-129.

Fabre, A., Saaid, O., Wiest, F. and Boucheron, C. 1996. High frequency applications based on a new current controlled conveyor. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 43(2):82-91.

Faseehuddin, M., Sampe, J. and Islam, M.S. 2016. Designing Ultra Low Voltage Low Power Active Analog Blocks for Filter Applications Utilizing the Body Terminal of MOSFET: A Review. Asian Journal of Scientific Research, 9(3):106-121.

Faseehuddin, M., Sampe, J. and Islam, M.S. 2016. Schmitt Trigger based on Dual Output Current Controlled Current Conveyor in 16nm CMOS technology for digital applications. In Semiconductor Electronics (ICSE), 2016 IEEE International Conference.

Hogervorst, R., Tero, J.P., Eschauzier, R.G. and Huijsing, J.H. 1994. A compact power-efficient 3V CMOS rail-to-rail input/output operational amplifier for VLSI cell libraries. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 29(12):1505-1513.

Horng, J.W. 2011. High output impedance current-mode universal biquadratic filters with five inputs using multi-output CCIIs. Microelectronics Journal, 42(5):693-700.

Horng, J.W., 2012. Analytical synthesis of general high-order voltage/current transfer functions using CCIIs. Microelectronics Journal, 43(8):546-554.

Horng, J.W., Hou, C.L., Tseng, C.Y., Chang, R. and Yang, D.Y. 2012. Cascadable current-mode first-order and second-order multifunction filters employing grounded capacitors. Active and Passive Electronic Components, 2012.

Horng, J.W., Wang, Z.R. and Liu, C.C. 2011. Voltage-mode lowpass, bandpass and notch filters using three plus-type CCIIs. Circuits and Systems, 2(01):34.

Huang, C.J. and Huang, H.Y. 2004. A low-voltage CMOS rail-to-rail operational amplifier using double p-channel differential input pairs. In Circuits and Systems Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium.

Hwang, C., Motamed, A. and Ismail, M. 1995. Universal constant-g m input-stage architectures for low-voltage op amps. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 42(11):886-895.

Kaçar, F. and Yeşil, A. 2012. FDCCII‐based electronically tunable voltage‐mode biquad filter. International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 40(4):377-383.

Khateb, F., Khatib, N. and Kubánek, D. 2011. Novel low-voltage low-power high-precision CCII± based on bulk-driven folded cascode OTA. Microelectronics Journal, 42(5):622-631.

Khateb, F., Khatib, N. and Kubánek, D. 2012. Novel ultra-low-power class AB CCII+ based on floating-gate folded cascode OTA. Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, 31(2):447-464.

Khateb, F., Kumngern, M., Vlassis, S., Psychalinos, C. and Kulej, T. 2015. Sub-volt fully balanced differential difference amplifier. Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, 24(01):1550005.

Kubanek, D., Khateb, F. and Khatib, N. 2012. Low-voltage ultra-low-power current conveyor based on quasi-floating gate transistors. Radioengineering, 21(2):725-735.

Kun, Z. and Di, W. 2011. A High-performance Folded Cascode Amplifier. Energy Procedia, 13:4026-4029.

Lehmann, T. and Cassia, M. 2001. 1-V power supply CMOS cascode amplifier. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 36(7):1082-1086.

Lu, Y. and Yao, R.H. 2008. Low-voltage constant-gm rail-to-rail CMOS operational amplifier input stage. Solid-State Electronics, 52(6):957-961.

Madian, A.H., Mahmoud, S.A. and Soliman, A.M. 2006. New 1.5-V CMOS second generation current conveyor based on wide range transconductor. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 49(3):267-279.

Ramirez-Angulo, J., Lopez-Martin, A.J., Carvajal, R.G. and Chavero, F.M. 2004. Very low-voltage analog signal processing based on quasi-floating gate transistors. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 39(3):434-442.

Sampe, J., Zulkifli, F.F., Semsudin, N.A.A., Islam, M.S. and Majlis, B.Y. 2016. Ultra low power hybrid micro energy harvester using RF, thermal and vibration for biomedical devices. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(2):18-21.

Sedra, A.S., Roberts, G.W. and Gohh, F. 1990. The current conveyor: history, progress and new results. In IEE proceedings.

Smith, K. C. and Sedra , A. 1968. The current conveyor A new circuit building block. In Proceedings of the IEEE.

Soliman, A.M. 2008. Current-mode universal filters using current conveyors: classification and review. Circuits, Systems & Signal Processing, 27(3):405-427.

Surakampontorn, W. and Kaewdang, K. 2014. Development of Differential Amplifier Based the Second Generation Current Conveyors. ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications, 10(2):139-145.

Wilson, B. 1990. Recent developments in current conveyors and current-mode circuits. IEE Proceedings G-Circuits, Devices and Systems, 137(2):63-77.

### Refbacks

- There are currently no refbacks.