Changeable prohibitory exit signs used in choice of fire evacuation route

En-Shu kuo, Chieh-Hsin Tang, Ying-Ji Chuang, Yi-Ting Tseng, Ching-Yuan Lin

Abstract


As interior space of buildings become increasingly complex, current exit signs in fire incidentsmay not be able to provide timely evacuation guidance. This study proposes a concept ofchangeable prohibitory exit signs, and discusses the feasibility of using the signs to help withthe way-finding. This study has concluded that whether the meanings of such changeableprohibitory exit signs have been explained beforehand, the general public’s recognition andunderstanding of the signs are positively presented, and the evacuation success rate has beenincreased 20%. However, the increase needs to be further verified with more and extensiveexperiments in different spatial conditions of environment. Even with the current signs, afterexplanation of their meanings, the accuracy of way-finding gave an 8% improvement, whichproves that education on current signs is also very important. On the behavioral characteristicsof evacuation, it is found that (1) both males and females tend to make a left turn; (2) in anunfamiliar space there is a slight but non-statistically significant difference between males andfemales in choosing effective routes.

Keywords


Changeable prohibitory exit signs; icon recognition; way-finding

Full Text:

PDF

References


Beaumont, P., Gray, J., Moore, G. & Robinson, B. 1984. Orientation and way finding in the Tauranga

Departmental Building: A focused post-occupancy evaluation. In D. Duerk & D. Campbell, Eds.,

Environmental Design Research Association Proceedings, 15. San Luis, CA: Obispo 77-91.

Best, G. A. 1970. Direction-finding in large buildings. In D. Canter, Ed., Architectural Psychology.

London: RIBA Publications 72-91.

Boyce, PB & Mulder, MM. 1995. Effective directional indicators for exit signs. Journal of the Illuminating

Engineering Society 24(2): 64–72.

Cairney, P. T. & Sless, D. 1982. Communication effectiveness of symbolic safety signs with different

user groups. Applied Ergonomics 13(2): 91-97.

Collins, BL & Lerner, ND. 1983. Evaluation of exit symbol visibility. NBSIR 83-2675. Washington DC,

USA: National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Collins, BL. 1979. Pierma BC., Evaluation of safety symbol. NBSIR 79-1760. Washington DC, USA:

U.S. Department of Commerce.

Collins, BL. 1982. The development and evaluation of effective symbol signs. NBS Building Service

Series 141. Washington DC, USA: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Collins, BL. 1991. Visibility of exit directional indicators. Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society

(1): 117–33.

Evans, G. W. 1980. Environmental cognition. Psychological Bulletin 88: 259-287.

Garling, T., Book, A. & Lindberg. E. 1984. Cognitive Mapping of Large-scale Environments.

Environment and Behavior 16: 3-34.

Kacmar, C. J. & Carey, J. M. 1991. Assessing the usability of icons in user interface. Behavior and

Information Technology 10: 443-457.

Lodding, K. 1983. Iconic interfacing, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 4(12): 13-23.

Changeable prohibitory exit signs used in choice of fire evacuation route 18

Maguire, M. C. 1985. A review of human factors guidelines and techniques for the design of graphical

human–computer interfaces. Computers and Graphics 9 (3): 221-235.

Montello, D. R. 1991. Spatial orientation and the angularity of urban routes a field study. Environment

and Behavior 23(1): 47-69.

Montello, D.R., Lovelace, K.L., Golledge, R.G. & Self, C.M. 1999. Annals of the association of

American geographers sex-related differences and similarities in geographic and environmental,

Spatial Abilities 89 (3): 515-534.

Murray, L.A., Magurno, A.B., Glover, B.L. & Wogalter, M.S. 1998. Prohibitive pictorials: Evaluations

of different circle-slash negation symbols. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 22: 473-

Nielsen, J. 1990. Miniatures versus icons as a visual cache for video text browsing. Behavior and human

factors society 33rd annual meeting 380-384.

O’Neill, M. J. 1991a. Evaluation of a conceptual model of architectural legibility. Environment and

Behavior 23(3): 259-284.

O’Neill, M. J. 1991b. Effects of signage and floor plan configuration on way finding accuracy.

Environment and Behavior 23(5): 553-574.

Ouellette, MJ. 1988. Exit signs in smoke: design parameters for greater visibility. Lighting Research and

Technology 20(4): 155–160.

Ouellette, MJ. 1988. Exit signs in smoke: design parameters for greater visibility. Lighting Research and

Technology 20(4): 155–160.

Passini, Romedi. 1939. Way finding in architecture, Van Nostr and Reinhold Company Inc.

Passini, Romedi. 1999. Way-finding: backbone of graphic support systems. Visual Information for

Everyday Use, London: Taylor & Francis.

Shieh, K.K. & Huang, S.M. 2003. Factors affecting preference ratings of prohibitive symbols. Applied

Ergonomics 34: 581-587

United Nations. 2009. Vienna convention on road signs and signals of 8 November 1968. Ministry of

interior, exit indicator and evacuation indicator approval standard.

Wickens, C. D. 1992. Engineering Psychology and Human Performance, Harper Cillins: New York.

Wogalter, M.S., Conzola V.C. & Smith-Jackson. 2002. Research-based guidelines for warning design

and evaluation. Applied Ergonomics 33: 219-230.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.